ITU e-Learning Course on

„Security and QoS
in Internet Network”

11 – 18 April 2022

Course Description

This course will focus on Security and Quality of Service (QoS) in Internet network from technology, regulation and business aspects. It will cover Internet fundamentals, including Internet protocols and architectures, Internet security standards and approaches as defined by IETF (Internet Engineering Task Force), as well as ITU’s security architectures for end-to-end communications. Further, the course will incorporate cybersecurity approaches from the ITU viewpoint, and security aspects of emerging cloud computing and Internet of Things (IoT). Further, the course will incorporate Internet QoS, including the standardized solutions and practical approaches for provision of end-to-end QoS. In that manner it will cover QoS parameters as defined by the ITU and QoS for data (i.e., Over-The-Top services) and mobile services. Finally, the course will include network neutrality, Internet KPIs (Key Performance Indicators) and their measurements.

Target Population

This course is targeted at managers, engineers and employees from regulators, government organisations, telecommunication companies and academia, who are interested in understanding, implementation and regulation of Security and QoS in Internet Network, including technologies, standardization, regulation and content. Other institutions and individuals that are dedicated in building their capacity related to Security and QoS in Internet Network are also welcome to participate.

Expected Outcomes

At the end of the training, the participant should have gained an understanding
of the key aspects of:

  • Internet fundamentals
  • Internet security by IETF
  • ITU’s security architectures providing end-to-end communications
  • Cybersecurity
  • Cloud coumputing and Internet of Things (IoT) security
  • Internet QoS
  • QoS parameters
  • QoS for data and mobile broadband services
  • Network neutrality and Internet KPIs measurements
  • ITU guidelines for QoS regulation

Course Content

1. Internet fundamentals
  • Telecommunications/ICT Evolution
  • Global ICT Developments in 21st Century
  • The rise of the Internet
  • The Internet evolution
  • Internet development timeline
  • Internet protocols
  • Structure of the IP packet
  • Internet fundamentals – name spaces
  • IPv4 vs. IPv6 header
  • Internet networking protocols
  • IP Packet
  • TCP connection establishment
  • Internet networking principles
  • Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP)
  • Network Address Translation (NAT)
  • Client-server Internet networking
  • Peer-to-peer Internet networking
  • Internet architecture – for all access networks
  • Global Internet network architecture
  • Autonomous Systems
  • How BGP (Border Gateway Protocol) works?
  • Internet fundamental applications
  • File Transfer Protocol (FTP)
  • Email protocols and communication
  • Web-based email
  • World Wide Web (WWW)
  • HTTP for WWW
  • Peer-to-Peer (P2P) Services
  • Multimedia Streaming
  • Session Control with Session Initiation Protocol
  • SIP for signaling in telecom IP networks
  • The convergence of ICT onto the Internet
  • Internet governance – the technical side
  • Internet governance – bigger picture
2. Internet security by IETF
  • Security solutions
  • Goals of Internet security
  • Security solutions and ease of use
  • Internet security on network layer – IPsec
  • What IPsec does?
  • How IPsec works?
  • IPsec protocols AH and ESP
  • Where IPsec is primarily used?
  • Internet security on transport layer – SSL/TLS
  • SSL protocol architecture
  • SSL functioning
  • Use of SSL/TLS
  • Authentication, Authorization and Accounting (AAA) in Internet
  • RADIUS communication
  • RADIUS packet format
  • Diameter
  • SCTP as transport protocol for Diameter
  • SCTP reliability and security features
  • SCTP use in 4G mobile core networks
  • Diameter architecture
  • Diameter in ITU’s NGN
  • Firewalls
  • Packet-filter Firewall
  • Proxy Firewall (on application layer)
3. ITU’s security architectures providing end-to-end communications
  • ICT security standardization
  • ITU-T recommendation X.805: End-to-end security
  • Eight security dimensions
  • Some application-specific architectures: Peer-to-peer communications
  • Some application-specific architectures: Security architecture for mobile web services
  • Information security management framework
  • Risk management
  • Asset management
  • Governance of information security
  • Cryptographic concepts relevant to Recommendation ITU-T X.509
  • Cryptographic algorithms
  • Hashing
  • Digital signature
  • Public-Key Infrastructure (PKI)
  • Privilege Management Infrastructure (PMI)
  • Privacy protection
  • Security mechanisms for NGN
  • AAA architecture for NGN
  • NGN identity management
  • Identity information in NGN
  • Telebiometrics
  • Identity management and telebiometrics
  • Extensible Authentication Protocol (EAP)
  • Securing the network infrastructure
  • Security of communications across multiple networks
  • Framework for secure mobile end-to-end data communications
  • Security framework for the home network
  • Voice over IP (VoIP) and multimedia
  • General security architecture for IPTV
4. Cybersecurity
  • Introduction to Cybersecurity
  • Cybersecurity vs. cybercrime
  • Cybersecurity needs commitment
  • Cybersecurity challenges
  • Key cybersecurity challenges
  • ITU mandate on cybersecurity
  • Global Cybersecurity Agenda (GCA)
  • ITU Child Online Protection (COP)
  • Cybersecurity information Exchange (CYBEX)
  • Vulnerability scoring
  • Weakness scoring
  • Common Weakness Scoring System (CWSS)
  • Exchange of malware characteristics information
  • Discovery of cybersecurity information
  • Incident handling
  • Incident management in telecommunication organizations
  • Global Cybersecurity Index (GCI)
  • ITU Global Cybersecurity Agenda (GCA)
  • Global Cybersecurity Index (GCI) Heat Map
5. Cloud computing and Internet of Things (IoT) security
  • What is cloud computing?
  • Cloud ecosystem
  • Cloud computing functional architecture
  • Cloud Computing service categories
  • Over The Top (OTT) cloud services
  • Telco Cloud implementations
  • Cloud security
  • Cloud Computing security objectives
  • Application layer security for access to the cloud
  • Secure cloud access
  • Summary of cloud computing security challenges
  • Regulation aspects of cloud security
  • Practical problems on cloud regulation
  • Business aspects of cloud security
  • Internet of Things (IoT) space
  • Web of Things (WoT)
  • Web of things example: Smart Home
  • IoT security examples and requirements
  • Internet of Things (IoT) security
  • Attacks on the Internet of Things
  • Tag-based services
  • IoT experience vs. recommendations
  • Threat versus Opportunity in the IoT
  • Security in Future Networks
  • Identification framework for Future Networks
  • Smart Sustainable Cities (SSC) and security
6. Overview of Internet QoS
  • User Perception of Services
  • QoS, QoE and Network Performance
  • The relationship between QoS, QoE and Network Performance
  • Service Quality Criteria
  • ITU’s QoS Framework
  • Four Viewpoints of QoS
  • Four Market Model
  • QoS Framework and Regulation
  • Internet and QoS
  • About the Internet QoS Goal
  • Internet traffic characteristics
  • Audio: Main Characteristics
  • Video: Traffic Pattern
  • Video: Effect of Delay
  • Video: Playback Point
  • TCP Behavior
  • The Reasons for the Internet Congestion?
  • Traffic share of the Internet Applications
  • What to do with Different Traffic Types in Internet?
  • Transport Requirements of Common Internet Applications
  • QoS on Different Protocol Layers
  • Layer Splitting
  • How do we Classify Packets?
  • Packet Classification – technical side
  • Packet scheduling example: Priority Queuing
  • Admission Control
  • Internet QoS Framework by IETF
  • QoS Architectural Framework by ITU-T
  • Integrated Services (IntServ)
  • Differentiated Services
  • DiffServ Edge Functions
  • Classification and Conditioning
  • Comparison: Best-Effort, DiffServ, IntServ
  • Multi-Protocol Labeled Switching (MPLS)
  • MPLS Architecture
  • Example: NGN centralized architecture for MPLS core networks
  • DiffServ concept
  • Basic DiffServ Model for a Single Provider
  • Basic Inter-Provider Model
  • Layer 2: Ethernet 802.1Q Class of Service
  • Deep Packet Inspection (DPI) and QoS
  • QoS on the Internet Today
7. QoS parameters
  • Primary and Derived QoS Parameters
  • QoS and Network Performance parameters categorization
  • Regulatory and industrial directives on QoS parameters
  • Comparable Performance Indicators (CPIs)
  • Model for user-centric QoS categories
  • ITU standardized QoS parameters
  • Generic ITU QoS parameters
  • Some selected examples of generic ITU standardized QoS parameters
  • IP Network Performance Parameters
  • Layered model for IP networks and services
  • IP transfer performance: Impact of lower layer protocols
  • IP transfer performance: Impact of Higher Layer Protocols
  • Inter-relationship of QoS parameters
  • IP network performance parameters
  • Transfer capacity as important IP network performance parameter
  • End-to-end network model for QoS objectives
  • ITU QoS Classes
  • Mapping services to QoS classes
  • End-to-end QoS in an IP environment
  • Key Performance Indicators (KPIs)
  • KPIs, targets and measurement methods
  • Web Browsing (HTTP) QoS Parameters
  • Example of KPIs for data services
  • Examples of non-technical KPIs
  • QoS parameters measurement methodologies
8. QoS for data and mobile broadband services
  • Data vs. Internet
  • The Internet and mobile networks story
  • Internet network problem for mobility?
  • What belongs to OTT (Over-The-Top) services?
  • Example of P2P Service: Skype
  • Other OTT VoIP over mobile network
  • Comparison between Telco and OTT VoIP
  • OTT multimedia streaming: Youtube
  • Social Networking
  • OTT cloud services: Google cloud model
  • Discussion on data services
  • End-to-end QoS for data services
  • 4G Quality of Service
  • LTE QoS Class Identifiers
  • QoS for mobile services
  • Mobile services classification
  • QoS-enabled Mobile VoIP
  • Establishing VoIP with QoS between different Mobile Operators
  • QoS-enabled VoIP Data Transfer Between Mobile Operators
  • Mobile streaming and TV
  • 3GPP PSS (Packet-switched Streaming Service) protocol stack
  • Evolved MBMS architecture
9. Network neutrality and Internet KPIs measurements
  • Big Picture: End-to-end Internet communication
  • Some definitions from regulation point of view
  • Technical model for Network Neutrality regulation
  • Examples of cases with degradation
  • Degradation of the Internet Access Service (IAS) as a whole
  • End users rights and NRAs
  • Internet Assess Service: When regulatory intervention is needed?
  • NRA imposing minimum QoS requirements
  • Network neutrality regulation
  • Regulation in the Europe: The Telecoms Single Market Regulation
  • Regulation in Europe: Network neutrality
  • Regulation in Europe: Consumer protection
  • Network neutrality regulation in Europe
  • US view on “specialised services”
  • Regulation in the US The Open Internet Order of 2015
  • Challenges regarding QoS vs. network neutrality
  • Basic network model for QoS measurements
  • QoS perceptions
  • QoS measurement considerations
  • ITU’s framework for monitoring QoS of IP network services
  • Minimum set of parameters (KPIs) for evaluating the quality of IP network service
  • Measurement methods
  • HW testing tools classification by ITU
  • SW testing tools classification by ITU
  • QoS evaluation scenarios by ITU
  • QoS evaluation scenario at national level
  • QoS evaluation scenario at international level
  • Important considerations about the sampling methodology
  • Important considerations regarding Internet QoS measurements
  • Issues for consideration – What happens with multiple flows over the same Internet access?
  • Other issues for considerations
10. ITU guidelines for QoS regulation
  • Scope of QoS Regulation
  • ITU’s Guidelines for QoS Regulation
  • QoS Regulation Approaches
  • Guidance Principles for QoS Regulation
  • Measurements Aspects of QoS Regulation
  • Activities in QoS Regulation
  • List of Proposed Parameters
  • Information Gathering Approach
  • Information Publication
  • Target Levels
  • Penalties
  • Compensation to Customers
  • Constructive Dialogue
  • SLA and QoS Regulation
  • Criteria for QoS Parameters
  • Definition of Term “Parameter”
  • Definition of QoS Parameters
  • Formulation of the Target Levels
  • Measurement Methods
  • Reporting
  • Example: Measurement Methods for Mobile Networks and Services
  • Example: Measurement Methods for Fixed Internet
  • Example: Minimum QoS Parameters for Mobile Voice
  • Example: Minimum QoS Parameters for Internet Services

An example of the course materials


Prof. Toni Janevski

Toni Janevski, Ph.D., is a Full Professor at the Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Information Technologies, Ss. Cyril and Methodius University, Skopje, Macedonia. He received his Dipl. Ing., M.Sc. and Ph.D. degrees in electrical engineering all from Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Information Technologies, Ss. Cyril and Methodius University in Skopje, in 1996, 1999 and 2001, respectively. During 1996-1999 he has worked for the Macedonian mobile operator Mobimak (currently T-Mobile, Makedonski Telekom, Macedonia), contributing to the planning, dimensioning and implementation of the first mobile network in Macedonia. From 1999 he is with Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Information Technologies in Skopje.

In 2001 he has conducted research in optical communications at IBM T. J. Watson Research Center, New York. During 2005-2008 he was an elected member of the Commission of the Agency for Electronic Communications (AEC) of the Republic of Macedonia. During the periods 2008-2012 and 2012-2016 he was member of the Senate of the Ss. Cyril and Methodius University in Skopje. In 2009 he has established Macedonian ITU (International Telecommunication Union) Centre of Excellence (CoE) as part of the Europe’s CoE network, and serves as its head/coordinator since than.

In 2012 he has won “Goce Delchev” award, the highest award for science in Macedonia (can be received once in a lifetime). Also, he received Best Scientists Award of the Ss. Cyril and Methodius University in Skopje for 2013 (can be received once for a lifetime).

He is the author of the book titled “Traffic Analysis and Design of Wireless IP Networks”, which is published in 2003 by Artech House Inc, USA. In April 2014 has appeared his book titled „NGN Architectures, Protocols and Services”, published by John Wiley & Sons, UK. He is also author of the book „Internet Technologies for Fixed and Mobile Networks”, published in November 2015 by Artech House, USA. Further, in April 2019, he has published the book „QoS for Fixed and Mobile Ultra-Broadband”, John Wiley & Sons (Wiley – IEEE Press series), UK. He has published over 200 research papers and has led several research and applicative projects in the area of Internet technologies and mobile and wireless networks.

Also, he has tutored and coordinated many international courses in the ITU Academy, each year since 2009. He is a Senior Member of IEEE since 2005. He is currently a member from Europe region in the ITU’s GCBI (Group on Capacity Building Initiatives), in the term 2018-2022.

His interests include Internet Technologies, Mobile, Wireless and Multimedia Networks and Services, Quality of Service (QoS), Design and Modeling of Telecommunication Networks, Next Generation Networks, 5G and beyond Mobile Networks and Services, Internet of Things (IoT), Cloud Computing, and Future Networks.

Course Date (Duration)

11 – 18 April 2022 (8 days)

Participation fees

150 USD

Delivery Method

E-Learning Course. The course methodology will be as follows:

  • Each day from 11 to 15 April 2022 there will be made available two recorded video lectures, which are recorded in the face-to-face ITU Centre of Excellence workshop organised by National Institute of Telecommunications in Poland. In total there are 10 video lectures during the course.
  • Discussion forum will be organized based on discussion topics given on a daily basis, where students are highly encouraged to participate and interact with instructors and other students.
  • Quiz test will be assigned on the last day of the course, 18 April 2022.
  • All announcements for all events (lectures, quiz and forum) will be given in a timely manner (prior to the event) by the course tutor.


At the end of the course participants will take part in a written test checking the level of knowledge gained during the training.


STEP 1 – Login into ITU Academy

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STEP 2 – Registration into this course

After login into ITU Academy, select the course „Security and QoS in Internet Network” by using the link: